In each issue of FMJ, IFMA’s Facility Management Consultants Council shares some commonly asked FM-related questions accompanied by advice from top FM consultants. The questions and answers presented in this section align with IFMA’s core competencies following the themes outlined for the given edition of the magazine. While the following answers are intended to be helpful, these responses should not be deemed complete and are limited in context by the space allocated. Please contact the individual consultants directly for further explanation of the opinions expressed. The theme of this edition of FMJ is “Safety, Security and Risk.” Q “Resilience” is a wide-ranging term used today regarding buildings and business continuity. So exactly how can I make my buildings more resilient? A back-up generator is critical as a power outage is inevitable. Our building generator can sustain the operation of the entire heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system, as well as power the data centre, lights and all operations within the building for72 hours before refueling is necessary. ANSWERED BY Kimberly Snow CFM, FMP, ABCP Hillsburgh, Ontario, Canada +1-905-405-7555 Kimberly_snow@tjxcanada.ca Snow is manager of workplace services, TJX Canada, Canadian home office. She has more than 10 years of experience in the FM industry, working with numerous companies managing renovation and expansion projects, space and move management, business continuity and general building operations. WHAT AFFECTS RESILIENCY? In the FM world, resiliency is the ability of a building to withstand a threat to its continued operation, and we explore those threats by conducting assessments. Areas of concentration traditionally include physical security and the durability of building structures, systems and components, but have expanded to include threats related to cybersecurity and even climate change. ASSESSMENTS Physical security addresses access to the facility by unwanted/unauthorized individuals. Public access buildings are more severely challenged than private. Limiting entry to only those areas where the general public require access and isolating or moving other assets for separation is the most common solution, combined with some identification authorization to nonpublic areas with keys, card readers, recognition systems or manned security posts. Physical security is assessed by walk-around inspection of the entire facility. Durability of our buildings and systems is evaluated by condition assessments. It is important to identify which systems are critical to continued operations, as is determining their condition and ability to fulfill their intended function. Secondly, life expectancy or remaining life will assist in planning for renewal and replacement timing and needs. The area of cybersecurity has become increasingly sophisticated with the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT) and is becoming more vital to continued safe operations. The introduction of programs designed to disrupt computer systems, data or even commandeer the operation of programs and systems to maliciously disrupt tasks and functions can land solidly at the feet of the FM. Some resources and guidance documents available for assessment purposes in the United States include National Institute of Standards, Special Publication 800-82 and ICS-CSET. The causes of climate change are debated across the globe. Not for debate is the fact that changes in temperature extremes, rising sea level and intensity of precipitation or lack of precipitation have been recorded and trended by authoritative sources. The effects on the FM industry, as well as the assessment areas, are most influenced by geographical location. Assessments include rooftop snow loads and rainfall accumulation/drainage, flood map projections, cooling capacity and utility service contingencies. RISK MANAGEMENT Evaluation of the assessments should include an assignment of probability and impact. By completing that analysis, a logical and systematic arrangement of priorities can be constructed. The high-probability, high-impact risks get the top priority. The elimination of risks can most often involve significant resources and funding. In a flood, for example, the impact on critical building equipment located below grade could be extremely disruptive. Relocating that equipment could be costly. On the other hand, designing a new building and incorporating the FM perspective to place that equipment at a higher elevation above the flood threat would be considerably less costly as part of the original design than a retrofit. The facility manager of the 21st century is tasked with mitigating risks daily. An effective emergency response to hazards, events or failures is designed to contain the consequences. A robust business continuity plan is critical. Walkthroughs and drills in simulated circumstances will lead to an improved response. Reacting to emergencies and implementing business continuity mitigate the outcome of an event. Our attention is then directed to mitigating the probability or seriousness of an anticipated event via hardware, software, processes, policies, directives or other implemented changes. ANSWERED BY Peter J. Stroup, PE Boston, Massachusetts, USA +1-617-432-2107 | email@example.com Harvard Medical School’s director of facilities, Peter J. Stroup, is also principal with SAGE International FM, a provider with a passion for sharing 30 years of experience delivering consulting services to the FM industry. He holds a Bachelor of Science in civil and environmental engineering, a Master of Business Administration and is a registered professional engineer. A member of IFMA, APPA, NFPA and NSPE, Stroup frequently presents at FM conferences in his many areas of expertise. There are two physical aspects of making facilities resilient if an episode or disaster occurs: » New facilities can have robustness built into the design/engineering so a disaster is buffered. The initial costs should be easy to justify looking forward. (In comparison, consider the ways in which automobiles now deliver ROI by protecting occupants.) » Existing facilities present different challenges, since changes, upgrades and redundancies must be installed through renovations and improvements. (Again, consider the many challenges of bringing a 1992 automobile up to today’s requirements.) Technical facilities (labs and plants) are much more likely to deal with internal hazards, so an environmental health and safety program must encompass training, storage/handling, built-in safety devices, auto-shutdowns and emergency plans/drills for occupants. Office buildings have fewer hazards and more technology options to ensure their missions come back online faster. While facility managers can be good stewards of planning/responding to both internal and external events, their key focus should be on helping occupants by forecasting how they can continue their work. Hot sites for back-up of IT tools/networks, off site raw materials/product inventories, alternate instrument capabilities at universities, etc., can ensure continuity is rapidly restored. However, there will be some costs and inefficiencies that are endured for a finite time. Fully engaged facility managers must look beyond their immediate territories to guide the total organization to grapple with disaster planning and business continuity. The objective thought processes and out-of-the-box perspectives from “neutral” facility managers can build bridges, integrate plans, resolve issues and safeguard integration for the entire organization. This requires facility professionals to be active leaders, ready to stand in the crossroads of communications. ANSWERED BY Dr. Doug Aldrich, CFM, IFMA Fellow Denver, Colorado, USA +1-720-253-8974 | firstname.lastname@example.org With five decades of industry experience and FM consulting, Aldrich is a strategic leader, laboratory expert and globality advocate. He was chair of the IFMA Board of Directors, cofounded IFMA’s Research and Development Council, has served on advisory boards, communicates in word and print, and helps nonprofits. PROBLEM What are the threats to your properties and people — buildings in particular? With apologies to William Shakespeare… “What will I worry about? Let me count the ways.” Before you start counting, have a clear understanding of the tolerance for risk in your organization, evidenced by provisions now in place, culture, policies, strategies and strategic objectives. If you are new, or a consultant, look for risk management as a theme in the strategic plan. Consult with the chief operations officer or chief financial officer. ACTION Make or update a risk register — a “living” list of how your buildings are vulnerable, both as assets themselves, as well as the occupants and processes contained within them. Record the building, including each component and every threat: a row for each. Consider what could happen, the probability, how much can you mitigate and/or control, consequences/recovery time and who will “own” (manage, track, train, prepare against) that risk. Talk to operations team leads, engineers, architects, fire and police. Keep risk owners informed. Score the probabilities and consequences 1-5 and multiply them together to “calculate” risk — adjust for mitigation and control. That leaves residual risk to deal with through emergency and business continuity planning. Now train, evaluate, report and reconsider periodically. Compare the costs of assessment and preparation versus the cost of unpreparedness. TOOLS AND GUIDANCE A resilient building protects its occupants, processes and itself to a defined degree in the most affordable combination of ways. There are a number of templates and tutorials online for risk registers and approaches, as well as abundant advisers. For example, the FMCC’s World FM Week 2017 virtual conferences included two presentations on workplace violence. Visit the FMCC site to access these and many more valuable consultant resources: bit.ly/FMCCWorldFMWeek2017. ANSWERED BY David Reynolds, CFM, FMP Jackson, Mississippi, USA +1-504-481-2627 email@example.com Reynolds is with FM-CONSULTCREATE. His background is in systems, project management and consulting in small companies serving a variety of clients and industries. He holds degrees in science, engineering and allied health areas. He focuses on FM as organizations adopt asset and risk management principles and practices, where clear, visible, interactive, maintainable, processes and models, data and measurements can better frame FM in alignment with organization strategies and objectives. Reynold’s pro bono work includes construction, maintenance, safety and health. He is also a member of IFMA’s Operations and Maintenance, Health and Safety Community. First, it is important to understand what resiliency means. According to Merriam-Webster, it is “an ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change.” Since the buildings we manage provide space for the occupants to conduct their business, we must consider resiliency from their perspective, not just from a building perspective. So, to make your building more resilient, you must talk to the occupants about their needs and what resilience looks like to them. This is the same as planning for emergency and contingency response — don’t strategize in isolation. Start by identifying what the occupant needs to maintain their business operations and how long they would need it, whether they have their own backup plans (or backup locations) and other business-related issues. Then, based on what your occupant needs, you look at your building systems, utilities and services one-by-one to determine what your options are if there is a “misfortune” as the definition above describes. This should include all the same variables you deal with for emergency management and contingency planning, but with a very clear focus on resiliency for the occupant. In some cases, alternate services, process changes or other straightforward planning can provide resiliency. For other needs, major capital spending could be required, such as upgrading backup power capacity. The cost/benefit of each of the options should be assessed and implemented based on that assessment. Consider what is within your control and what is not. Be open and honest about whether it is truly possible to achieve the resiliency occupants need for any given crisis. That way, they can plan their own business contingencies accordingly. ANSWERED BY Michel Theriault, FMP, RPA, LEED AP Ontario, Canada +1-519-803-5401 firstname.lastname@example.org Theriault has been in FM for 25 years, working in-house and with an outsource provider and has been an FM consultant for nearly a decade. He is an award-winning author, international speaker and a qualified IFMA FMP instructor. His award-winning book, “Managing Facilities and Real Estate” emphasizes strategy, management and leadership in the FM role. As principal and strategic advisor of FM Insight Consulting Ltd., Theriault focuses on management and strategic issues, helping facility managers in a wide variety of industries analyze, justify, plan and implement their initiatives with a strategic approach. For more information, visit his website at www.strategicadvisor.ca or his blog at thebuiltenvironment.ca. ABOUT THE COUNCIL The Facility Management Consultants Council (FMCC) represents more than 300 FM consultants from various countries around the globe. Its mission states, “The FMCC is the resource and voice for facility management consultants worldwide to leverage our collective expertise to benefit IFMA members, and the facility management profession.” Questions regarding the Ask the Experts section of FMJ can be directed to Mark Sekula, IFMA Fellow, CFM, FMP, LEED AP, president of Facility Futures, Inc., at email@example.com. Visit FMCC online at fmcc.ifma.org or join the conversation on the council’s LinkedIn group at http://linkd.in/1gAa8ae.
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