use of a system (which is an easier purchase with less dependency on IT). At the same, time customers demand a longer-term relationship with the vendor, as they need a partner to become their “tech translator.” As Tom Friedman points out in his latest book, "Thank You for Being Late," we are living in an “age of acceleration,” and the end user has no time to keep up with new technologies. Nor do they have the skill set or time to design the right experiments to allow them to determine if disruptive technologies will make their lives easier. In turn, users work very closely with their vendors to create value clarity that will prove out the investment to upper management. 1 This means the vendor takes on the role of the consultant and relationship manager and works with the customer to discover their business issues — everything from the strategies of the entire organization to the tactical processes of anyone who would interface with the I2WMS. After gathering this information, a hypothesis is created, which must be tested. Only after this analysis is conducted can the right implementation strategy (with the right mix of technologies) be designed for that organization, to solve their business issues. Another people-centric issue that changes is this advanced system requires technical skills in designing, implementing, maintaining and optimizing these integrations and interactions. Jobs like this require life-long learning, and courses in these new technologies can be found online and in community colleges. Employers are getting more involved in advising learning institutions to provide them with technically trained staﬀ, so you will see more and more of these types of training courses coming out of colleges and universities, often through certiﬁcation programs. For an example of this, see what the IFMA Foundation’s Global Workforce Initiative is doing with the California Community Colleges.